Hungary

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The Republic of Hungary is a parliamentary republic and a unitary state divided into 19 counties.

Constitution is the supreme law in Hungary. The 1949 Constitution was revised several times among which the most important amendments were added in 1989 and in 1997. The revision of October 1989 granted legal rights for individuals, constitutional checks on the authority of the Prime Minister and also established the principle of parliamentary oversight. In 1997, an amendment, which streamlined the judicial system was added.

Other sources of Hungarian law are the Acts of Parliament, international agreements, governmental and ministerial decrees and decrees of local governments.

The legislative power is exercised by a unicameral National Assembly. The members of the Assembly are elected for a four-year term by popular vote under a system of proportional and direct representation. Out of the total 386 seats, 176 are decided in single constituency vote, 152 on the basis of 20 district lists (county and municipal), and 58 seats on the basis of national lists. The Parliament has an extensive power over the government.

Legislative procedure: The Parliament enacts laws with a majority of the votes of the Members of Parliament present. Legislation may be initiated by the President, the Government, all Parliamentary Committees, and individual members of Parliament. The President ensures promulgation of the law within a period of fifteen days, or within a period of five days if upon the request of the Speaker of Parliament. If the President disagrees with a law or with any provision of a law, prior to promulgation, he/she may refer the law, with comments, to the Parliament for reconsideration. The President is required to sign and promulgate the law, if the Parliament adopted it in the second reading. If the President has reservations about the constitutionality of any provision of a law, he/she may refer the law to the Constitutional Court for review prior to promulgation. Should the Constitutional Court determine the law to be unconstitutional, the President refers the law to the Parliament for revision. The President of the Republic signs the law subject to national referendum if the law is confirmed by a national referendum.

Executive power in Hungary is vested in the President, Prime Minister and the government.

The National Assembly appoints the President for a five-year term for a maximum of two successive terms.

The government consists of the Prime Minister and the ministers. The Prime Minister is elected by a simple majority vote of the members of Parliament. The ministers are proposed by the Prime Minister, and appointed and relieved of their duties by the President.

Judicial system in Hungary consists of three tiers: the Supreme Court, the Court of the Capital City and the county (municipal) courts and local (municipal district) courts. The areas of jurisdiction include criminal, civil and administrative law. Common courts deal with administrative judgements. There are no special, administrative courts.

The Supreme Court is the highest judicial organ. Supreme Court ensures the uniformity in application of law by the courts. It sets guidelines based on principles for the judicial work of every court. The directives and decisions in questions of principle of the Supreme Court are binding for all courts of the country.

The Constitutional Court was established in 1989. Its jurisdiction covers the review of the constitutionality of laws. Any law or secondary legislation acts found unconstitutional are annulled by the Constitutional Court. In cases defined by law, anyone may initiate proceedings with the Constitutional Court. The Court also examines disputes concerning competence between the organs of central administration. The decisions of the Constitutional Court are final.

ODIHR Legal Reviews, Assessments

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Opinions

2018-12-17

Összefoglaló: A törvény 253.§ szerint 25%-os adófizetési kötelezettség terheli (1) a bevándorlást segítő tevékenység magyarországi végzésének anyagi támogatását, illetve (2) a Magyarországon székhellyel rendelkező, bevándorlást segítő tevékenységet végző szervezet működésének anyagi támogatását. A DIEJH és a Velencei Bizottság jelen közös véleményében megjegyzi, hogy a bevándorlást sújtó különadó indokolatlan beavatkozást jelent az érintetett civil szervezetek véleménynyilvánítási és az egyesülési szabadságába.  A Vélemény megjegyzi továbbá, hogy a különadó kivetése dermesztő hatással lesz alapvető jogok gyakorlására, valamint jogvédő személyekre és szervezetekre, illetve el fog tántorítani lehetséges donorokat az ilyen civil szervezetek támogatásától további nehézséggel sújtva a legitim emberi jogi tevékenységet folytató civil szervezeteket. Mindezen okok miatt a DIEJH és a Velencei Bizottság a rendelkezés megsemmisítését javasolja a jelen véleményben kifejtettek szerint.

 

2018-12-17

Summary: Section 253 of the Act imposes a 25 per cent tax (1) on financial support to an immigration supporting activity carried out in Hungary or (2) on the financial support to the operations of an organisation with a seat in Hungary that carries out immigration supporting activity. ODIHR and Venice Commission in this Join Opinion note that the special tax on immigration constitutes an unjustified interference with the right to freedom of expression and of association of the NGO affected. The Opinion further adds that the imposition of this special tax will have a chilling effect on the exercise of basic human rights and on individuals and organisations who defend them, as well as it deters potential donors from supporting these NGOs and puts more hardship on civil society engaged in legitimate human rights’ activities. For all these reasons, ODIHR and Venice Commission recommends to repeal the provision as examined in the present opinion.

2018-06-25

Összefoglaló: Az EBESZ/DIEJH és a Velencei Bizottság megjegyzi, hogy a 353/A szakasz tervezete új kategóriaként tartalom alapú korlátozást vezet be és olyan szervezeti tevékenységeket rendel büntetni, amelyek közvetlenül nem kapcsolódnak az illegális migráció megvalósulásához. Ez egyrészt a civil szervezetek áldozatok számára nyújtott segítő tevékenysége ellen hat, aránytalanul korlátozva a nemzetközi kötelezettségvállalások által biztosított jogokat, másrészt pedig érdekérvényesítési- és kampánytevékenységeket rendel büntetni, ami jogszerűtlen beavatkozást jelent az Emberi Jogok Európai Egyezményének 10. cikke által biztosított véleménynyilvánítás szabadságába.  A Velencei Bizottság és az EBESZ/DIEJH megjegyzi, hogy a 353/A szakasz tervezetének nyelvezete nem kellően pontos, ezáltal sérteni látszik az EJEB joggyakorlatában kimunkált előreláthatósági követelményt, így nem felel meg az európai kívánalmaknak. A közös vélemény javasolja továbbá, hogy a törvényjavaslat e rendelkezését jelen formájában nem szabad elfogadni, hiszen felveti a bevándorlók és menedékkérők számára jogszerűen segítséget nyújtó magánszemélyek és szervezetek büntetőjogi felelősségre vonásának kockázatát.  

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