The Turkish legislation regarding terrorism and terrorist offences dates back to 1991, in response to the activities of separatist terrorist organisations in Turkey. Since then, Law 3713 on the Fight against Terrorism has since been subject to many amendments and partial annulments of the Constitutional Court. The latest major amendment has been realised in 2006, changing the definition of many terrorist and terrorism-related offences, as well as introducing new investigative measures regarding the prosecution of suspected terrorists.Although all kinds of national and international terrorist activities fall under the scope of the anti-terrorism legislation of Turkey, the main focus remains on separatist activities. For this reason, the rehabilitation and resocialization of former terrorists has also been a major focus of the Legislator.
Definition of terrorism, terrorist offences and offences committed with terrorist aims
The Turkish legal system differentiates two types of offences: Terrorist offences, which are limited to those specified under the Law 3713, and some offences against the territorial integrity of the state, and offences committed with terrorist aims. The former are considered as terrorist offences per se, while the latter can only be treated as such when committed within the framework of a terrorist organisation and/or in furtherance of its aims. According to this Law, the punishment for terrorist offences and offences committed with terrorist aims shall be aggravated, and special procedural and executional rules shall apply.